The section represents data on retail, wholesale trade and consumer market of services. The data characterize the activities of organisations of retail and wholesale trade. The state of retail and wholesale are illustrated by data on trade turnover, indices of retail trade physical volume turnover. Information is given on commodity structure, sales of main food and non-food products, the quality of goods in consumer market. The statistical data are shown on the sales of goods (products) by industrial enterprises and organisations of wholesale trade, on the stock of goods (products) at industrial enterprises, organisation of wholesale and retail trade, on the activities of commodity stock exchanges.

The section also represents statistical data characterizing the consumer market of services. The data in value terms are given in actual prices. Changes in the volume of market services rendered to population are characterized by volume indices calculated by comparing its value for the recorded and basic periods adjusted for inflation by the index of consumer prices for services.

Retail trade turnover - a return from goods sold to population for own consumption or for use in households and paid by cash or credit cards, by bank cheques, from bank accounts of individuals by bank transfer or by payment cards. The cost (value) of goods sold to selected categories of population with discount on credit is included in the retail trade turnover at nominal prices (excluding discount).

Retail trade turnover data include the cost of goods sold to population by organisations for which retail trade is the main kind of their activity, by organisations of other sectors of the economy, if they sell to population goods purchased outside or of own production over trade establishments which are included in their financial balance or with payments made over pay-desk. Retail trade turnover also includes the value of goods sold by individual entrepreneurs and individuals (physical persons) in retail markets and fairs.

Retail trade turnover is formed on the basis of the complete statistical survey on large and medium organisations. This survey is conducted monthly. Also the quarterly sample survey on small businesses, commodity, mixed and food markets and fairs, as well as the sample survey on individual entrepreneurs engaged in retail trade are conducted. Data collected while these surveys mentioned above are grossing up on the general population of units under observations.

The survey on business activities of retail trade organisations1) is representative sample surveys which are representative by territories and cover all groups of organisations by size and ownership types. While the grossing up sample assessments for the general population these assessments are adjusted (corrected) according to the structure of the general population.

1) Survey is carried out by Rosstat according to methodology of "Analytical Center of the Government of the Russian Federation".

The balances of assessment of indicators (in percentage) are used as simple indicators of results of surveys. They are determined as the difference of shares of respondents who indicated "increase" and "decrease" of the indicator in comparison with the previous period or as the difference of shares of respondents who assessed the level of indicator as "higher than normal" and "lower than normal".

On the basis of the balance of assessments the composite indicator - index of entrepreneurial confidence is compiled. For retail trade the index of entrepreneurial confidence is calculated as an arithmetic mean of balances of assessments of actual economic situation and the level of storage stock (the latter with opposite sign) as well as expecting economic situation of trade organisations.

Information in this section is presented as average arithmetic means of balances of indicators for each year under analysis.

Wholesale turnover - is a return of goods sold, purchased previously outside with the aim to resell to legal entities and individual entrepreneurs for professional use (reprocessing or further sale). It is formed on the data of complete statistical survey covered large and medium wholesale enterprises and organisations and conducted monthly as well as on data of quarterly sample survey of small businesses with grossing up these data for the general population.

Besides in accordance with requirements of the system of national accounts, retail trade turnover of trade organisations and wholesale turnover of wholesale organisations are revised by a volume of hidden activities.

Data on retail trade (wholesale) turnover for 2006 was revised according to results annual surveys of large, medium organisations and small businesses.

Dynamics of retail trade and wholesale and sales of selected goods is characterized by volume indices which are defined by comparability of a turnover value for reporting and basis periods at constant prices.

Volume of market services rendered to population reflects the volume of money paid by customer himself for various types of services rendered to him (or to members of his/her family) or paid by the organisation (enterprise) where he works. Producers of service are only residents of the Russian economy (organisations, enterprises, individual entrepreneurs of various kinds of economic activities, registered on the territory of the Russian Federation). Consumers of service are citizens of the Russian Federation and also citizens of other countries (non-residents) who consume one or another service on the territory of the Russian Federation. The volumes of market service includes market service rendered to the population by large and medium organisations, small businesses, individual entrepreneurs, non-corporate enterprises, citizens engaged in entrepreneurial activity without the establishment of a legal entity. This indicator is based on data of the federal state statistical observation and on the appraisal of hidden and informal activities in the market of services according to the approved methodology.

Market services rendered to population include: everyday personal services, passenger transport services, communication, housing and public utilities, hotels and accommodation service, education services, cultural and recreational services, tourism, physical culture and sports, public health services and related health and sanitation services, veterinary, legal services, etc.

Russia in figures - 2008
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